There is no direct cause of macular degeneration, but rather many factors combined contributing to the AMD. Besides the fact of aging, here below is a number of factors that have been found to be associated with macular degeneration:
Smoking. It should be the No. 1 preventable cause of macular degeneration. A study done with about 3,500 Beaver Dam, Wis. residents shows that Nearly 50% risk of AMD developing originates from smoking and the result has been reported in the January 2008 issue of Archives of Ophthalmology.
High blood pressure. High blood pressure damage the blood vessels that supply blood to the eyes and the retina. For the delicacy of the retina, high blood pressure has a possibility to make blood vessels leak, leading to fluid building up in the choroid. Further more, high blood pressure is more associated with the wet form of age-related macular degeneration. Wet AMD is a more serious condition as to dry AMD with a risk of vision lost.
Medication. Some medications have a side effect on eye, causing kinds of eye problems, among which AMD is included. Some medications like Fosamax for osteoporosis may predispose to macular degeneration. The appendix of the names and side effects of those medications can be found in Daniel L. Robert’s The First Year -Age Related Macular Degeneration
Family history. You may surprise that family history constitutes a potential factor of AMD development. The fact is that it runs in families. To be aware of it is helpful for one to take necessary measurements to prevent AMD if one or two or more of his or her family members have AMD.
Sunlight. Among all the rays in sunlight, it not the UV, the risk factor of cataracts development, that burdens a risk for macular degeneration but the bluelight which can cause damage to our retinas, providing a potential risk for the development of macular degeneration.
Poor diet. A saying goes that illness often find their way in by the month. It is quiet right. If your food is lack of leafy vegetables, or food is rich in antioxidant or omega-6 fatty acids, you will be more likely to suffer from AMD.
Exposure to some car exhaust and chemicals. Most people may be not strange to free radicals, organic molecules responsible for aging, tissue damage and possible diseases. If you are exposed too often to toxins, like car exhaust and chemicals, free radicals may produce, causing damage to our bodies and eyes. Therefore stay away from toxic environments, and make sure the air you breathe, the water you drink and the food you eat is nontoxic, as far as possible to avoid AMD and other diseases.